Glossaire Scientifique

Glossaire des termes et des abréviations pertinentes à l'Autorité internationale des fonds marins et à ses documents.
Veuillez noter qu’il s’agit d’un document en constant développement.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Z
Titlesort descending

The study of the physical and biological interactions between an organism and its natural environment.


The living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of an environment that interact.

Ecosystem Diversity

The diversity of biological communities and their chemical and physical environment. The highest level of biodiversity. Compare tospecies diversity and genetic diversity.


Environmental Impact Assessment.


Environmental Impact Studies and Equipment Tests (COMRA project)


The blood and tissues of fish contain dissolved gases. If fish from the deep ocean are brought to the surface, the decrease in pressure allows the dissolved gas to expand in the form of bubbles (embolism), causing disfiguration and protrusion of the internal organs through the mouth and other orifices.


An organism that might be geographically widespread, but is restricted to a specific habitat or region.


The degree to which a species is restricted to a particular geographic region; endemism usually occurs in areas that are isolated in some way.


Synonymous with infauna


A symbiotic relationship where the symbiont is found within the tissues of the host (e.g., bacteria living inside tubeworms, clams or mussels)


Environmental Quality Department (Massachusetts, United States)


All of the physical, chemical, and biological factors in the area where a plant or animal lives.


Pertaining to the environment.

Environmental Impact Assessment

A detailed study and analysis of the effects that a potential action (such as deep sea mining in a particular area) may have on theenvironment. Abbreviated to EIA.


French Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.


Synonymous with demersal

Epibenthic Sled

A qualitative sampling device which is dragged along the seabed. It is comprised of a flattened mesh bag attached to wide runners to prevent it sinking into the sediment. Designed to collect the smaller organisms at the sediment-water interface.


Animals that live on the seabed, either attached to the seafloor or freely moving over it.


Pertaining to the epifauna


Referring to the upper region of the ocean depths, above the mesopelagic, where photosynthesis can occur. Extends from the surface down to 100-200m depending on the localized conditions. Also called the Euphotic Zone. {Figure}.


A symbiotic relationship where the symbiont is found living on the outside of the host (e.g., bacteria living on the surface of bresiliid shrimp or alvinellid polychaetes).


Equatorial Pacific (Ocean).


Used to describe the large, active megafauna. Dominated by the Echinodermata, Arthropoda and Fishes. Opposite of sessile.


European Union.


All organisms except viruses, bacteria and blue-green algae. They have a distinct nuclear membrane surrounding the nucleus and contain chromosomes. Compare to prokaryote.

Eularian Measurement

Measurement of the motion of a fluid by monitoring flow past a fixed point. Compare to Lagrangian measurements.

Euphotic Zone

The upper section of the ocean that receives sufficient light for photosynthesis. In clear oceanic waters, the euphotic zone can extend to a maximum water depth of 200m. Synonymous with epipelagic. Compare to Aphotic Zone


Able to tolerate a wide range in depth. Opposite of stenobathic. Compare to euryhaline and eurythermic


Able to tolerate a wide range in salinity. Opposite of stenohaline. Compare to eurybathic and eurythermic


Able to tolerate a wide range in temperature. Opposite of stenothermic. Compare to eurybathic and euryhaline.


High nutrient concentrations supporting high productivity. Compare to oligotrophic.


The skeleton or supporting structure, on the outside of an organism.

Expendable Bathythermograph

A weighted probe dropped into the sea that transmits temperature readings as it falls through the water column to produce graphs of temperature against depth. The probe is not recovered. Abbreviated to XBT.

Expendable CTD Probe

A weighted CTD probe dropped into the sea that transmits readings as it falls through the water column to produce graphs of conductivity (a measurement of salinity) and temperature against depth. The probe is not recovered. Used when the use of normalCTD apparatus is not practical. Abbreviated to XCTD.


The recovery for commercial purposes of mineral deposits in the Area and the extraction of minerals therefrom, including the construction and operation of mining, processing and transportation systems, for the production and marketing of metals. Compare toexploration and prospecting.


Searching for mineral deposits in the Area with exclusive rights, the analysis of such deposits, the use and testing of recovery systems and equipment, processing facilities and transportation systems, and the carrying out of studies of the environmental, technical, economic, commercial and other appropriate factors that must be taken into account in exploitation. Compare to exploitation andprospecting.


A species which still occurs. Opposite of extinct.


A species that no longer occurs anywhere in the world. Opposite of extant. Compare to extirpated.


A species that no longer occurs in a specific location or region. Compare to extinct.