Minerals: Polymetallic Nodules

Polymetallic Nodule Polymetallic nodules cover vast areas of the ocean floor and are more abundant in areas off the west coast of Mexico in the Pacific, known as Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ); in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB); and in the Peru basin. They are composed mainly of Mn, Fe, Silicates and hydroxides. It is the trace metal contents such as Ni, Cu, Co, and Mn and Rare Earth Elements (REE) that are attracting interests to mine these deposits to meet the growing demand for these metals. The nodules vary in size from micro-nodules to about 20 cm, the common size being two to eight centimeters.

More...

Polymetallic Nodules Contractors

Contractor Contract Date Expiration Date Sponsoring State Location
Interoceanmetal Joint Organization 29 Mar 2001 29 Mar 2016 Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, Poland, Russian Federation and Slovakia Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
JSC Yuzhmorgeologiya 29 Mar 2001 29 Mar 2016 Russian Federation Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
Government of the Republic of Korea 27 Apr 2001 27 Apr 2016 Republic of Korea Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association 22 May 2001 22 May 2016 China Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
Deep Ocean Resources Development Co. Ltd. 20 Jun 2001 20 Jun 2016 Japan Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer 20 Jun 2001 20 Jun 2016 France Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
Government of India 25 Mar 2002 25 Mar 2017 India Indian Ocean
Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany 19 Jul 2006 18 Jul 2021 Germany Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
Nauru Ocean Resources Inc. 22 Jul 2011 21 Jul 2026 Nauru Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
Tonga Offshore Mining Limited 11 Jan 2012 10 Jan 2027 Tonga Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
Global Sea Mineral Resources NV 14 Jan 2013 13 Jan 2028 Belgium Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
UK Seabed Resources Ltd. 08 Feb 2013 07 Feb 2028 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (I)
Marawa Research and Exploration Ltd. 19 Jan 2015 18 Jan 2030 Kiribati Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
Ocean Mineral Singapore Pte Ltd. 22 Jan 2015 21 Jan 2030 Singapore Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone
UK Seabed Resources Ltd 29 Mar 2016 28 Mar 2031 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (II)
Cook Islands Investment Corporation 15 Jul 2016 14 Jul 2031 Cook Islands Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone
China Minmetals Corporation 12 May 2017 11 May 2032 China Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone
Beijing Pioneer Hi-Tech Development Corporation 18 Oct 2019 17 Oct 2034 China Western Pacific Ocean